The option of managing the featured image block is within the customizer.
Go to Admin Panel / Appearance / Customize / Featured Content / Featured Content Type.
From this section you will see different option for setting that featured content section.
You can Select Type from here.
And for your information the featured images here will the post’s or page’s Featured Image that you have selected from Select Type Option.
Hope this will help to resolve your issue.
Let us know how it goes.
The images that are in that sections are the Featured Image of the posts or pages that you have selected to be displayed in that section.
If you have selected the post or pages that don’t contain the Featured Image then of course the images will not be displayed and only the content will be displayed.
Go to particular page or post editor screen that you have selected to be displayed in that section and below at right hand site you will see Featured Image section from that you need to select picture which will be displayed in that section.
Or else you can provide us your site URL so that we can debug further more with your issue.
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